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NADH, also known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form), is a fundamental molecule in the functioning of our organism. It provides vital resources to mitochondria, which are the cellular organelles responsible for ATP production, the energy currency of our cells.
Difference between NADH, NAD+, and NMN
However, there is a great deal of confusion in the market regarding different types of molecules that are similar to NADH but not equal in value. It is important to understand the differences between the various products available, which often have similar names or appellations but contain different molecules and have very different effects on energy metabolism. This also applies to their prices.
NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a vital biological coenzyme for the energy metabolism of all living cells. It is produced during the breakdown of food, particularly carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, through certain cellular metabolic processes. It is then used in mitochondria to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary source of energy for cells.
NADH is a small molecule composed of two nucleotides, adenine and ribose, along with two phosphate groups and a nicotinamide group. The nicotinamide group is the active part of the molecule that allows NADH to accept and donate electrons in redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions. During these reactions, NADH can transfer two electrons and one proton (H+), which converts it into oxidized NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), the next step in energy production, is a distinct form of NADH. Unlike its reduced form (NADH), NAD+ does not directly participate in ATP creation, but it plays a role in the biochemical reactions that lead to its production.
NAD+ is synthesized by cells during various metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Composed of two nucleotides, adenine and ribose, along with two phosphate groups, NAD+ also has a nicotinamide group. This nicotinamide group is the active part of the molecule, allowing it to accept and donate electrons in redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions.
NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) is a molecule that also plays a role in cellular energy metabolism. However, unlike NADH, it does not directly participate in the creation of ATP, the main cellular energy source.
NMN is synthesized by cells from vitamin B3, also known as niacin. Once formed, NMN can be converted into NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
Composed of a nicotinamide nucleotide and a ribose, NMN has a molecular structure similar to that of NAD+. It acts as a precursor to NAD+ by providing the necessary building block for its synthesis.
Relation between NADH, NAD+ et NMN
NADH is therefore the most interesting molecule for energy production in this cycle. It is the molecule that allows the accumulation of metabolic energy necessary for ATP synthesis.
Cellular energy production involves crucial interactions between NADH, NMN, NAD+, ATP, and ADP. Let’s see how these molecules interact to generate ATP, the main source of energy used by cells.
When NADH interacts with ADP (adenosine diphosphate), an important reaction takes place. NADH transfers a portion of its energy in the form of electrons to ADP, thereby converting ADP into ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is a highly energetic molecule used by cells to power a multitude of biological processes. Thus, NADH is the direct key element in ATP production, providing the energy necessary for vital cell functions.
Why promote the intake of NADH
NADH is thus the most interesting molecule for energy production in this cycle. It is the molecule that allows the accumulation of metabolic energy necessary for ATP synthesis.
As we have seen previously, NMN is a precursor to NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), while NAD+ can be converted to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced) by the addition of protons and electrons.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is predominantly synthesized in the mitochondria, primarily through the input of protons and electrons by the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where NADH plays a key role. Thus, only NADH directly provides the elements necessary for ATP creation. The other molecules act as intermediates with only indirect effects.
Metabolism of NADH
In the mitochondria, NADH is oxidized through a series of enzymatic reactions called the respiratory chain. This chain is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. When NADH is oxidized, the electrons it carries are transferred along the respiratory chain, leading to the formation of a gradient of protons (H+) across the inner membrane.
This proton gradient is then utilized by an enzyme called ATP synthase to produce ATP. ATP synthase acts like a turbine, converting the energy from the proton flow into ATP. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation.
Pathway of electrons from NADH
Electrons from NADH are first transferred to Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the respiratory chain. This complex consists of several protein subunits and cofactors such as FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and iron-sulfur clusters. When the electrons are transferred to Complex I, it leads to the pumping of protons (H+) across the mitochondrial inner membrane, from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
The electrons then pass from Complex I to coenzyme Q (or ubiquinone), which is a small liposoluble molecule present in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Coenzyme Q accepts the electrons and carries them to Complex III (cytochrome bc1), which is composed of multiple protein subunits and cofactors such as cytochromes and iron-sulfur centers. During this electron transfer, additional protons are pumped across the inner membrane.
Complex III then transfers the electrons to cytochrome c, a small mobile protein located in the intermembrane space. Cytochrome c transports the electrons to Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), which is the final complex in the respiratory chain. Complex IV transfers the electrons to another cofactor, molecular oxygen (O2), thereby reducing oxygen to water (H2O). This electron transfer also provides energy for proton pumping.
Pathway of protons from NADH
Protons from NADH are pumped through the mitochondrial inner membrane during electron transfers to the different complexes of the respiratory chain. This process of proton pumping creates an electrochemical gradient, where the concentration of protons is higher in the intermembrane space than in the mitochondrial matrix.
This proton gradient, known as the proton electrochemical potential, plays a crucial role in ATP production. ATP synthase, an enzyme located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, utilizes this gradient to generate ATP.
ATP synthase functions like a turbine, driven by the flow of protons. Protons pass through the membrane subunits of ATP synthase, causing the enzyme to rotate. This conformational rotation of ATP synthase allows for the conversion of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary usable source of energy for the cell.
Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase): Complex I is the first complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It receives electrons from NADH and transfers them to coenzyme Q. At the same time, it pumps protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Complex II (Succinate dehydrogenase): Complex II is involved in the Krebs cycle. It transfers electrons from succinates to coenzyme Q without pumping protons. Electrons from Complex II then join coenzyme Q to continue their journey in the respiratory chain.
Coenzyme Q (or ubiquinone): Coenzyme Q is a small liposoluble molecule that acts as an electron carrier between Complexes I, II, and III. It accepts electrons from Complexes I and II and transports them to Complex III.
Complex III (Cytochrome bc1): Complex III receives electrons from coenzyme Q and transfers them to cytochrome c, a small soluble protein. During this electron transfer, protons are pumped through the mitochondrial inner membrane, contributing to the creation of a proton gradient.
Cytochrome c: Cytochrome c is a small soluble protein bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane. It transports electrons from Complex III to Complex IV, enabling the progression of electrons along the respiratory chain.
Complex IV (Cytochrome c oxidase): Complex IV transfers electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen, thereby reducing oxygen to water. This final electron transfer process is accompanied by proton pumping.
ATP synthase: ATP synthase is an enzyme located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It utilizes the energy of the proton gradient to catalyze the conversion of ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into ATP. ATP synthase functions as a turbine, powered by the proton flux, and allows for the production of ATP, the primary usable energy source by the cell.
The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle, is a key step in the energy metabolism of aerobic cells. It takes place in the mitochondrial matrix and plays a central role in the degradation of organic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids to produce energy in the form of ATP.
It begins with the entry of acetyl-CoA, a molecule formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, or amino acids, into the cycle. Acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, hence the name citric acid cycle. As the cycle progresses, various chemical reactions occur, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide, the production of NADH and FADH2 (electron carrier coenzymes), and the formation of ATP through phosphorylation.
ATP synthase is a membrane enzyme that plays a crucial role in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production, which is the primary source of energy used by cells.
The enzyme consists of two main parts: the membrane-bound F0 complex and the soluble F1 complex.
The F0 complex is embedded in the cell membrane and forms a channel through which H+ ions (protons) can pass.
The F1 complex is located inside the cell, near the membrane, and contains the catalytic sites responsible for ATP synthesis.
The functioning of ATP synthase is based on a process called chemiosmosis, which utilizes the proton concentration gradient across the membrane to generate energy.
The process begins with proton pumping, which uses the energy from nutrient oxidation (such as glucose) to pump protons across the membrane, creating a concentration difference.
The protons accumulate in the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical gradient.
Then, the protons diffuse through the F0 complex of ATP synthase, passing through a specific channel. This proton passage causes a rotation of the F0 part of the enzyme, which is transmitted to the F1 part.
The rotation of the F1 part induces conformational changes that allow the enzyme to catalyze ATP synthesis. The catalytic sites of the enzyme are composed of protein subunits that alternate between three different conformations: ADP + Pi (inorganic phosphate), ADP + Pi bound to the enzyme, and released ATP.
The rotation of the F1 part provides the energy required for the conversion of ADP + Pi into ATP, by binding the Pi to ADP and forming a high-energy bond. When ATP is formed, it is released from the enzyme and can be used by the cell for various metabolic processes.
This cycle of rotation and catalysis continues as long as protons continue to pass through the F0 complex of ATP synthase. Thus, the enzyme efficiently converts the energy from the proton gradient into chemical energy in the form of ATP.
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Benefits of ATP and NADH
What is ATP
ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is an essential molecule for the functioning of all living cells. It is often referred to as the “energy currency” of the cell because it stores and releases the energy needed for biological processes.
It is composed of a nitrogenous base called adenine, a five-carbon sugar called ribose, and three phosphate groups linked together. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds between the phosphate groups, and when these bonds are broken, energy is released.
Once formed, ATP is used to power a wide variety of cellular processes. For example, it provides energy for cell movement, muscle contraction, protein synthesis, active transport of molecules across membranes, cell signaling, and DNA replication, among others. Virtually all energy-requiring endothermic reactions in cells depend on ATP.
How does ATP influence your energy?
NADH acts as an electron donor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, a series of biochemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria, the energy powerhouses of cells. In this respiratory chain, NADH transfers electrons to specific enzymes, allowing ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation. ATP is the molecule responsible for supplying energy to essential cellular processes.
By providing an additional substrate for ATP production, NADH increases energy availability in the body. NADH supplements provide an exogenous source of this coenzyme, which can support increased ATP production in cells. This can lead to an overall increase in energy levels, resulting in improved physical performance and reduced fatigue.
The increase in ATP levels through NADH supplements can have several beneficial effects on the body. Firstly, it can enhance physical performance as muscles and tissues have more energy at their disposal, translating into increased endurance and better ability to perform demanding physical tasks.
Furthermore, the boost in cellular energy levels can help reduce fatigue. Fatigue is often associated with decreased energy reserves in the body. By increasing energy availability, NADH supplements can help maintain adequate energy levels, reducing the sensation of fatigue and improving mental alertness.
Lastly, NADH supplements can promote cellular recovery. When cells are subjected to physical stress or damage, their ability to produce ATP may be impaired. By increasing ATP production, NADH supplements can assist cells in recovering more rapidly, thereby promoting tissue recovery and repair.
NADH supplements, in addition to their other benefits, have also demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. NADH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, plays a crucial role in the function of endothelial cells, which line the walls of blood vessels. These cells play a key role in regulating vasodilation, blood pressure, and lipid balance in the blood.
Improving endothelial function is essential for overall cardiovascular health. Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide, a substance that promotes vasodilation, which is the widening of blood vessels. Adequate vasodilation allows for better blood circulation and a reduction in blood pressure, thereby contributing to maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system.
Studies have shown that NADH supplements can enhance endothelial function by increasing the production of nitric oxide. By increasing nitric oxide levels, NADH promotes vasodilation, leading to improved blood circulation and reduced blood pressure.
Moreover, NADH has been associated with improvements in lipid profiles in the blood. Studies have revealed that it can lower LDL cholesterol levels (known as “bad cholesterol”) and increase HDL cholesterol levels (known as “good cholesterol”). This increase in HDL cholesterol and decrease in LDL cholesterol are beneficial for cardiovascular health as they help reduce the risk of atherosclerotic plaque formation and cardiovascular diseases.
By taking NADH supplements, it is possible to promote vasodilation, regulate blood pressure, and improve lipid profiles in the blood. These combined effects contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis.
By increasing ATP levels in the brain, NADH promotes optimal neuronal activity. This results in improved concentration, mental clarity, and cognition. ATP provides the energy needed for communication processes between brain cells, facilitating information processing, quick thinking, and problem-solving.
Additionally, NADH is involved in dopamine regulation, a crucial neurotransmitter associated with motivation, mood regulation, and memory. Healthy dopamine regulation is essential for maintaining optimal cognitive functions. Studies have shown that NADH can contribute to dopamine balance in the brain, thereby promoting motivation, attention, and memory capacity.
Therefore, NADH supplements can enhance cognitive functions by promoting efficient neuronal activity and regulating dopamine levels. The positive effects include improved concentration, increased mental clarity, enhanced information processing, and problem-solving abilities. Moreover, NADH can support memory by promoting proper functioning of synaptic connections and facilitating the process of memory formation and recall.
Improvement of the immune system
NADH supplements can play a crucial role in strengthening the immune system by enhancing the body’s immune response. NADH, as an essential coenzyme in cellular energy production, is particularly important for immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages, which are responsible for protecting the body against infections and diseases.
An effective immune response requires optimal cellular energy levels to enable immune cells to function properly. NADH plays a key role in ATP production, the primary source of energy used by cells. By increasing cellular energy levels, NADH allows immune cells to maintain their optimal function, thereby enhancing their ability to fight infections and resist diseases.
Additionally, NADH is also involved in regulating the production of cytokines, molecules that play a crucial role in modulating the immune response. Cytokines are responsible for communication between immune cells, thereby coordinating their action to combat infections and pathogens. Studies have shown that NADH can positively regulate cytokine production, promoting a balanced and appropriate immune response.
By boosting the immune system, NADH supplements can contribute to maintaining good health and preventing diseases. A strong and responsive immune system is essential for resisting infections, fighting diseases, and promoting the healing process. By providing the necessary energy to immune cells and regulating cytokine production, NADH can help optimize the body’s immune response.
Reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress
The NADH supplements have been the subject of studies aiming to evaluate their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. NADH plays a crucial role as a cofactor for certain antioxidant enzymes present in the body, including superoxide dismutase. These antioxidant enzymes are responsible for neutralizing free radicals, highly reactive molecules that can cause oxidative damage to cells.
By acting as a cofactor for these antioxidant enzymes, NADH helps reduce oxidative stress in the body. Oxidative stress occurs when the imbalance between the production of free radicals and the antioxidant system’s capacity to neutralize them leads to cellular damage. By reducing oxidative stress, NADH helps protect cells from damage and prevent diseases associated with aging and chronic inflammation, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.
Additionally, NADH can also modulate inflammatory pathways in the body. It has been shown to inhibit the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These cytokines are involved in chronic inflammatory processes that can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and chronic inflammatory disorders.
By reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, NADH supplements can promote an optimal state of overall health. By protecting cells from oxidative damage and modulating inflammatory pathways, NADH helps maintain the balance and functionality of the body. This can result in a reduced risk of inflammation- and oxidative stress-related diseases and an improvement in overall health.
NADH by Longevity sciences lab
The NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) molecule is an essential cofactor for cellular energy production, as we have explained in detail. It comes into action when in contact with oxygen in cells and promotes energy production in mitochondria. NADH also enables the catalysis of over a thousand metabolic reactions, including a key role in the regeneration of damaged DNA and cells. It is crucial for maintaining energy levels in the heart and brain, thus strengthening the immune system.
NADH acts as a cofactor for enzymes involved in health and preservation, thereby combating senescence. Longevity Sciences Lab offers its NADH, a highly pure active ingredient that ensures maximum effectiveness.
Our product contains only NADH as the active molecule, with 0% NAD+ or NMN incorporated. Our products are manufactured in the heart of France, in the Loire Valley.
Exclusively composed of natural ingredients, our product is guaranteed to be free from additives, GMOs, vegan, and certified organic farming.
To ensure the best possible efficacy, our physiological corrector is dosed at 100 mg of NADH per capsule, which is 5 to 20 times higher than the majority of our competitors. This dosage allows for optimal effectiveness of the NADH molecule in the body.
To be effective, the intake of NADH should be sustained over time, which is why we offer 180-capsule bottles that can last for 6 months.
NADH is a sensitive molecule that is destroyed in the stomach due to its acidity. That’s why we use acid-resistant vegetarian DR-Cap capsules made of gellan gum.
Studies link to NADH
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)–a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson’s disease. Comparison of oral and parenteral application
The reduced coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been used as medication in 885 parkinsonian patients in an open label trial. About half of the patients received NADH by intravenous infusion, the other part orally by capsules. In about 80% of the patients a beneficial clinical effect was observed: 19.3% of the patients showed a very good (30-50%) improvement of disability, 58.8% a moderate (10-30%) improvement. Consulter l’étude ici.
Comparison of oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) versus conventional therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome
To compare effectiveness of oral therapy with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to conventional modalities of treatment in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Consulter l’étude ici.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, multisystem, and profoundly debilitating neuroimmune disease, probably of post-viral multifactorial etiology. Unfortunately, no accurate diagnostic or laboratory tests have been established, nor are any universally effective approved drugs currently available for its treatment. This study aimed to examine whether oral coenzyme Q10 and NADH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) co-supplementation could improve perceived fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, and health-related quality of life in ME/CFS patients. En savoir plus.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic and extremely debilitating illness characterized by prolonged fatigue and multiple symptoms with unknown cause, diagnostic test, or universally effective treatment. En savoir plus.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal anaerobic running time, and mental performance. Eight men were exposed to a supplement treatment (30 mg NADH as ENACHI tablets per day) and to a placebo treatment, each of 4 weeks’ duration, in a balanced, double-blind, and cross-over design. En savoir plus.
The pyridine nucleotides, NAD+ and NADH, are coenzymes that provide oxidoreductive power for the generation of ATP by mitochondria. In skeletal muscle, exercise perturbs the levels of NAD+, NADH, and consequently, the NAD+/NADH ratio, and initial research in this area focused on the contribution of redox control to ATP production. En savoir plus.
NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide): An essential molecule in the functioning of our body. It provides energy to cells in the form of ATP.
Mitochondria: Cellular organelles responsible for energy production in our cells.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate): A molecule used as a source of energy by cells.
NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide): The oxidized form of NADH, playing a role in biochemical reactions related to energy production.
NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide): A molecule that plays a role in cellular energy metabolism, a precursor to NAD+.
Coenzyme: A molecule necessary for the functioning of enzymes, in this case, NADH and NAD+ are coenzymes.
Energetic metabolism: The set of chemical reactions that allow the body to produce energy from nutrients.
Food degradation: The process of transforming food into nutrients usable by the body.
Redox reactions (reduction-oxidation): Chemical reactions where electrons are transferred from one molecule to another.
Oxidative phosphorylation: The process by which the energy produced during the mitochondrial respiratory chain is used to produce ATP.
Mitochondrial respiratory chain: A set of chemical reactions in the inner membrane of mitochondria involved in ATP production.
Proton gradient: The difference in proton (H+) concentration between two cellular compartments, used to produce ATP.
Krebs cycle (or citric acid cycle): A metabolic process that breaks down nutrients to produce energy in the form of ATP.
Acetyl-CoA: A molecule formed from the degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, or amino acids, which enters the Krebs cycle.
ATP synthase: An enzyme responsible for ATP production using the proton gradient created during the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Carbon dioxide: A gas released during certain chemical reactions, including some occurring in the Krebs cycle.
FADH2: An electron carrier coenzyme produced during the Krebs cycle.
Respiratory chain complexes: Sets of proteins involved in electron transfer along the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Molecular oxygen: A gas that acts as the final electron acceptor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, reduced to water.
Proton electrochemical potential: The gradient of proton (H+) concentration and electric charge that generates an electric potential difference. This proton electrochemical potential is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP.
Glycolysis: A metabolic process that breaks down glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP.
Pyruvate: A molecule produced during glycolysis, which can be used in other metabolic pathways to produce energy.
Oxidation reactions: Chemical reactions where a molecule loses electrons.
Reduction reactions: Chemical reactions where a molecule gains electrons.
Metabolic reactions: Chemical reactions that occur in cells to convert nutrients into energy or other molecules necessary for the functioning of the organism.
Enzymatic reactions: Chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes, proteins that accelerate biochemical reactions in the body.
Glycerol phosphate: A molecule produced during lipid degradation, which can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy.